Maintenance and maintenance tasks for materiel in a system.

Sep 012016

Integrated Logistics Support Services

The ten ILS elements

The ten ILS elements


The ten areas of ILS:

Why is ILS Important to Defence ?
For Defence, it’s ensuring that:

  •  we provide the optimum Mission System to the user
  •  it’s provided to:
    •  the right person
    •  at the right place
    •  at the right time
  •  deliver it in best possible condition with the ability to fulfil its designed mission role under the stated operational conditions as per it’s mission profile.

Why is ILS Important to the Contractor / Service Provider ?
Knowing and understanding the ILS requirements permits the contractor to deliver what Defence needs to:

  •  accurately acquire and sustain the Materiel System through life at the greatest Operational Availability (Ao) for the best Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) to Defence and the Tax payer.

To do this in a cost effective manner, the contractor must be able to deliver equipment and supporting documentation:

  •  without duplication of effort or continuous rework
  •  delivering best ILS practice and product to Defence thereby enabling them to be viewed by Defence as a preferred tenderer for future work (Scorecard), and
  •  be internationally competitive in the Defence arena

The most attractive part for the contractors:

  •  Sustainment activities or Through Life Support (TLS) contracts for Defence materiel are often more lucrative than the supply of the original equipment
  •  TLS of the Mission System and many of the Support Systems are now being managed and maintained by the OEM.
  •  Generally, 20% to 30% of funds are spent in Acquisition and 70% to 80% spent in Sustainment.

How do you do ILS ?
You don’t “DO” ILS; you perform Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) tasks that allows you to achieve the ILS outcomes.
Those LSA Disciplines include:

  •  Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM)
  •  Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis (FMECA) (done during design)
  •  Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA) (done after design to determine maintenance tasks)
  •  Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)
  •  Level Of Repair Analysis (LORA)
  •  Verification and Validation (V&V)
  •  Life Cycle Costing Analysis (LCCA)

So what is Logistics Support Analysis (LSA)?

LSA is a selected group of analytical techniques.
It is conducted continually throughout the Materiel Life Cycle (MLC).
It provides the data to support improvements to the efficiency of the Materiel System.
All data from the analysis is stored in the Logistic Support Analysis Record (LSAR).

Sep 012016

Maintenance Engineering Analysis (MEA).

FMEA, RCM, and MTA are also referred to as Maintenance Engineering Analysis (MEA).

  • FMEA  Failure Modes Effects Analysis – How can the equipment fail and what is the effect of failure.
  • RCM    Reliability Centred Maintenance – Maintenance focused on preventive replacements in order to maximise the operational period.
  • MTA    Maintenance Task Analysis – What specific tasks need to be performed to maintain the equipment
Sep 012016

Maintenance Support
Maintenance support includes all the considerations necessary to ensure:

  • an optimally maintainable materiel system;
  • with a defined maintenance support structure.

In Service Maintenance Support includes:

  • Processes / Procedures
  • Maintenance data collection / management
  • Training for the Personnel
  • Manuals
  • Tools and support equipment (calibration)
  •  Personnel to do the maintenance
Sep 012016

Maintenance Requirements Determination or MRD is a fundamental part of Integrated Logistic Support.

MRD is the umbrella term for: Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM), Maintenance Task Analysis (MTA) and Level of Repair Analysis (LORA).
FMEA, RCM, and MTA are also referred to as Maintenance Engineering Analysis (MEA).


Maintenance Requirements Determination Software: eMRD

Aug 312016

Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM)

RAM is the assessment of the inherent reliability of an item or system,

  • Reliability: how long it can be expected to operated before failure, based on the individual components from which it is comprised
  • Availability: its expected or required availability for operations, and
  • Maintainability: the maintenance time and complexity of repair of individual items,

which are then used to determine redundancy requirements, equipment quantity and maintenance resources required.

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Aug 312016

Level of Repair Analysis

What is Level Of Repair Analysis?

Level Of Repair Analysis combines two elements:

  •  Cost Analysis
  •  Repair Level Analysis

Cost Analysis determines Whether maintenance should be performed; which includes all costs incurred:

  • to establish and utilise a repair venue
  • the tooling required for the repair
  •  the skill of the repairer
  • in obtaining the Training required in order to perform the repair
  • in the Rates of pay of personnel conducting the repair
  • in the Cost of conducting the repair – i.e. time
  • in the Cost of the repair parts
  • in the Transport costs of getting the equipment to and from the repair base
  • in Other overheads

Repair Level Analysis (RLA) determines Where the maintenance should be performed; this in turn determines where the equipment can be repaired:

  • Operational/Organisational Level Maintenance •Light Grade Repair
  • Organic (On-board ship)
  • On the Flight Line


  • •Intermediate Level Maintenance •Medium Grade Repair – Mobile workshop
    •External (Along side dock )


  • •Deeper/Depot Level Maintenance •Heavy Grade Repair
    •Contractor (External )
    •Maintenance Depot

Level of Repair Analysis Software : eLORA

Aug 312016

Reliability Centred Maintenance
Reliability Centred Maintenance is the analysis and execution of Maintenance tasks focused on preventive replacements in order to maximise the operational period.

The focus on preventive maintenance is easily understood when consideration is given to the typical reactive type maintenance, ie “fix it when it breaks”.

In the typical reactive maintenance situation, the planned preventive maintenance gets delayed while resources are sidetracked performing emergency repairs to keep the system running after something has failed.

The delayed or cancelled preventive maintenance tasks then cause the system to be put at further risk due to it now operating beyond the planned / calculated maintenance periods. These operations beyond expected maintenance periods may place extra stress on the system, resulting in failure, diversion of maintenance resources to fix the failure, and a constant downward spiral in reliability. eg

  • An oil change that is normally scheduled to be performed at 250 operating hours gets postponed due to a separate failure elsewhere in the system.
  • The system is put back into service but the planned maintenance window for oil change has been missed and the system is now unable to be taken off-line for another 250 hours due to operational requirements.
  • So now the equipment has to run on the same oil for 500 hours rather than the planned 250.
  • If the original design did not allow for a maintenance period of twice the planned period, this may result in higher levels of contaminants and lower lubrication performance, and hence higher wear.
  • This higher level of wear may show up quickly in terms of an earlier failure of an associated piece of equipment, or it may not show up for years, instead resulting in perhaps a major overhaul at 5 years instead of the planned 10 year expected life.
  • Repeated maintenance delays may compound the unseen wear or degradation.
  • Had the oil change been able to be performed at the same time as the initial failure, the costs involved as a result of the early overhaul, or equipment failure, could probably have been avoided.

It is the desire to avoid this type of downward spiral that drives Reliability Centred Maintenance, particularly for system critical functions. (Sometimes a failure in a piece of equipment is not critical to the operation of the system, so repair on failure is acceptable. eg a light bulb failure when there is sufficient light from surrounding light bulbs to allow operations in the area to continue.)

Aug 312016

Materiel Life Cycle

The life cycle phases are:

  •  Needs
  •  Requirements
  • Acquisition
  • In-Service
  • Disposal

The Needs Phase
The Materiel Life Cycle (MLC) starts when the capability gap is identified and a materiel solution is required.

The Requirements Phase
Proposals are developed for Government consideration.
This is generally a Two pass approval system:

  •  1st Pass Approval to investigate possible solutions
  •  2nd Pass Approval given to acquire (money is usually assigned at this point)

The Acquisition Phase
Acquisition is the process of procuring an appropriate materiel system:

  •  to meet the identified requirements
  •  value for money over the life of system
  • includes the Mission and Support Systems

Transition Into Service
Transition Plan – addresses transfer of:

  •  ILS procedures & resources
  •  management responsibility

Acquisition ILS Manager to In-Service Support providers and the Project Office

In-Service Phase
The In-Service phase generally starts when the supplier delivers a materiel system.

In-Service support aims to:

  • Optimise cost of ownership
  • Ensure the capability remains fit for purpose

The Disposal Phase
Disposal is to be carefully considered, taking into account:

  • financial, environmental, security, archival, safety, and
    third-party transfer issues, e.g.
  • Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
  • International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITARS)