Engineering Design and Support includes all considerations necessary to ensure design integrity throughout the life cycle of the materiel system.

Sep 012016

Integrated Logistics Support Services

The ten ILS elements

The ten ILS elements


The ten areas of ILS:

Why is ILS Important to Defence ?
For Defence, it’s ensuring that:

  •  we provide the optimum Mission System to the user
  •  it’s provided to:
    •  the right person
    •  at the right place
    •  at the right time
  •  deliver it in best possible condition with the ability to fulfil its designed mission role under the stated operational conditions as per it’s mission profile.

Why is ILS Important to the Contractor / Service Provider ?
Knowing and understanding the ILS requirements permits the contractor to deliver what Defence needs to:

  •  accurately acquire and sustain the Materiel System through life at the greatest Operational Availability (Ao) for the best Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) to Defence and the Tax payer.

To do this in a cost effective manner, the contractor must be able to deliver equipment and supporting documentation:

  •  without duplication of effort or continuous rework
  •  delivering best ILS practice and product to Defence thereby enabling them to be viewed by Defence as a preferred tenderer for future work (Scorecard), and
  •  be internationally competitive in the Defence arena

The most attractive part for the contractors:

  •  Sustainment activities or Through Life Support (TLS) contracts for Defence materiel are often more lucrative than the supply of the original equipment
  •  TLS of the Mission System and many of the Support Systems are now being managed and maintained by the OEM.
  •  Generally, 20% to 30% of funds are spent in Acquisition and 70% to 80% spent in Sustainment.

How do you do ILS ?
You don’t “DO” ILS; you perform Logistic Support Analysis (LSA) tasks that allows you to achieve the ILS outcomes.
Those LSA Disciplines include:

  •  Reliability, Availability and Maintainability (RAM)
  •  Failure Modes, Effects & Criticality Analysis (FMECA) (done during design)
  •  Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA) (done after design to determine maintenance tasks)
  •  Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM)
  •  Level Of Repair Analysis (LORA)
  •  Verification and Validation (V&V)
  •  Life Cycle Costing Analysis (LCCA)

So what is Logistics Support Analysis (LSA)?

LSA is a selected group of analytical techniques.
It is conducted continually throughout the Materiel Life Cycle (MLC).
It provides the data to support improvements to the efficiency of the Materiel System.
All data from the analysis is stored in the Logistic Support Analysis Record (LSAR).

Sep 012016

Engineering Support
Engineering Support includes all considerations necessary to ensure design integrity throughout the life cycle of the materiel system.
In Service Engineering Support includes;

  •  Design integrity and management
  •  Base lining (Configuration Management CM Tasks)
  •  Engineering Change control (ECP/ECO), Modifications
  •  Continuous Improvement
  •  Upgrade / Mid life review
  •  Parts reviews and Tech Substitutions

Australian Engineering Support


Sep 012016

Systems Engineering

Systems Engineering is a design approach to achieve an integrated system that is designed from the start to accommodate the logistic support requirements.

Videos related to Systems Engineering

Logistics Engineering YouTube play

A System is a collection of elements or equipment that when combined produce an outcome not obtainable by the elements alone.
A Systems Integrator or Systems Engineer is tasked with integrating the elements, which may themselves be completely self-contained items or sub systems, so that they can be connected together or communicate with each other and work as a single functioning entity.
The elements (or sub systems) can include hardware, software, facilities, personnel, procedures, and documentation; ie. all things required to produce system-level outcome.
The outcomes typically include system-level functions and performance but may also extend to system qualities, system properties, system characteristics and system behaviours.
The total value of the system, beyond the sum of the independent parts, is usually created by the interconnections between the parts; eg automating the data transfer from a data reader, directly into the collating software that is able to make use of the data and provide a real time (graphical) display of the data just read, such as a bar scanner on a supermarket checkout.
System Engineering is a way of looking at the “big picture” when making design or operating decisions.
It is a way of achieving the operational functional and performance requirements in the intended environment over the planned life of the system.
Another way to put it would be; Systems Engineering is a way of thinking logically.
Often the system will have opposing constraints, which generally means something is compromised. Systems engineering attempts to look at the system holistically to determine the priorities of the functions and operabilities and thus minimise critical compromises while at the same time maximising functionality or performance.
The art of optimising the overall design without favouring one system/subsystem at the expense of another is an iterative process and may have inputs from many disciplines: electrical and electronics engineers, mechanical engineers, human factors engineers etc.
The ultimate result sought is a safe and balanced design that optimises the opposing interests and multiple, sometimes conflicting constraints.

Aug 312016

Failure Modes Effects Analysis
Failure Modes Effects Analysisis is the analysis of HOW the equipment can fail and what is the effect of failure.

It is designed to identify potential failure modes for an item or system, to assess the risks involved with those failures, to categorise and order in terms of importance, and to identify and either put in place mitigations or institute corrective actions to address those that can be addressed.

Aug 312016

Failure Modes Effects Criticality Analysis
Failure Modes Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) is the analysis of HOW the equipment can fail, what is the effect of failure and how critical is the failure.
It is designed to identify potential failure modes for an item or system, to assess the risks involved with those failures, to categorise and order in terms of importance, identify the criticality of the failure, and to identify and either put in place mitigations or institute corrective actions to address those that can be addressed.

Aug 312016

Level of Repair Analysis

What is Level Of Repair Analysis?

Level Of Repair Analysis combines two elements:

  •  Cost Analysis
  •  Repair Level Analysis

Cost Analysis determines Whether maintenance should be performed; which includes all costs incurred:

  • to establish and utilise a repair venue
  • the tooling required for the repair
  •  the skill of the repairer
  • in obtaining the Training required in order to perform the repair
  • in the Rates of pay of personnel conducting the repair
  • in the Cost of conducting the repair – i.e. time
  • in the Cost of the repair parts
  • in the Transport costs of getting the equipment to and from the repair base
  • in Other overheads

Repair Level Analysis (RLA) determines Where the maintenance should be performed; this in turn determines where the equipment can be repaired:

  • Operational/Organisational Level Maintenance •Light Grade Repair
  • Organic (On-board ship)
  • On the Flight Line


  • •Intermediate Level Maintenance •Medium Grade Repair – Mobile workshop
    •External (Along side dock )


  • •Deeper/Depot Level Maintenance •Heavy Grade Repair
    •Contractor (External )
    •Maintenance Depot

Level of Repair Analysis Software : eLORA

Aug 312016

Life Cycle Cost Analysis
The Real Cost of a Materiel System
Costs can be attributed to three major factors:

  •  Technology Lead
  •  Time In-service
  •  Technology Lag

Technology Lead
To achieve a technological edge, significant funds are invested in research and development (R&D).
This can lead to increased risks and hence costs and cost blow-outs.
There is a significant difference between ‘Leading edge’ and ‘Bleeding edge’ and development costs will generally be reflected in ‘Leading edge’.

Time In-service
The heavy investment in seeking leading edge technologies demands an effective return on investment.
This can lead to Materiel Systems being kept in service longer than equivalent commercial equipment.

Technology Lag

Towards the end of the capabilities life, support costs can significantly increase.
This can create problems in the identification of replacement Mission Systems.

Life Cycle Costing

Life Cycle Costing (LCC) Analysis comprises estimation and analysis techniques applied to the financial management of a capability.

It provides for the structured collection, analysis and presentation of Life Cycle Cost LCC data, to assist in decision making for mission system capabilities

When done well, LCC provides the evidence to support the expenditure on the capability.

Aug 312016

Materiel Life Cycle

The life cycle phases are:

  •  Needs
  •  Requirements
  • Acquisition
  • In-Service
  • Disposal

The Needs Phase
The Materiel Life Cycle (MLC) starts when the capability gap is identified and a materiel solution is required.

The Requirements Phase
Proposals are developed for Government consideration.
This is generally a Two pass approval system:

  •  1st Pass Approval to investigate possible solutions
  •  2nd Pass Approval given to acquire (money is usually assigned at this point)

The Acquisition Phase
Acquisition is the process of procuring an appropriate materiel system:

  •  to meet the identified requirements
  •  value for money over the life of system
  • includes the Mission and Support Systems

Transition Into Service
Transition Plan – addresses transfer of:

  •  ILS procedures & resources
  •  management responsibility

Acquisition ILS Manager to In-Service Support providers and the Project Office

In-Service Phase
The In-Service phase generally starts when the supplier delivers a materiel system.

In-Service support aims to:

  • Optimise cost of ownership
  • Ensure the capability remains fit for purpose

The Disposal Phase
Disposal is to be carefully considered, taking into account:

  • financial, environmental, security, archival, safety, and
    third-party transfer issues, e.g.
  • Foreign Military Sales (FMS)
  • International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITARS)